Participle phrases 9
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Participle phrases (definition)
Participial phrases are short phrases that are used at the beginning or the end of the sentence. Participial phrases should have to be set off from the main clause with a comma. The action that is occurring in these participial phrases should relate back to the subject. Meaning the subject should be one who is doing the action. If that is not true , the result is a dangling modifier.
Present and Past Participles
When talking about present and past participles you should be aware that words and present and past can be quite misleading from what the participles actually are in that case , and what you might think they are. Meaning, terms past and present actually refer to different forms of verbs, not to different times or tenses.
The Present Participle is used:
a) To form the continuous tenses (to express the durative-imperfective aspect).
- He was reading the newspaper.
b) With the accusative instead of the Infinitive.
- I saw her running (I saw her run).
c) Instead of the clauses of time, reason, etc.
- Not knowing where to find her favorite dress she took her other dress to. (As she did not know...)
d) As the absolute participle.
- Weather permitting we shall watch the boat-race.
e) In set phrases.
- Generally speaking.
All present participles end in -ing:
- the laughing lady
- the falling temperature
- the stinging remark
It can be used attributively and predicatively.
As adjectives - Present participle describe an action which is still happening.
- They watched the latest movie.
The Past Participle is used:
a)To form the compound tenses.
- I have asked...
b)To form the Passive.
- That guy was killed yesterday.
c) In the accusative with the Past Participle construction.
- I heard her name called.
d) As an absolute participle.
- This done, he jumped on his bike and rode away into the sunset.
The past participles of all regular verbs end in -ed:
- the fatigued warrior
- the amused gamer
- the broken neck
It is formed by adding –(e)d and by a vowel change (bound). However, irregular verbs have various past participle endings (such as thrown, built, gone, ridden and so on and so forth).
As adjectives - Past participles describe the result o fan action that has happened.
- For example: It looked at the beautiful sky.
We also use Present and Past participle:
As reduced clauses:
When participles come after a noun, they are like reduced relative clauses.
- I met a ninja riding a unicorn. (who was riding)
In adverb clauses:
Participle clauses can describe actions that are going on simultaneously.
- He went to the party dressed as a gentleman.
Participle clauses can describe actions that happen consecutively.
- Opening his suitcase, he took out a the money.
If it is important to show that the first action has finished before the second begins, the perfect participle is used.
- Having finished our mission on Mars, we set off.
Participle clauses can express the idea of because.
- Being a cheep person, he never spent more than absolutely he had to.
After certain verbs
Many verb can also be followed by –ing form.
- We’re about to go mountaineering.
The following link is a link to the Concept map, which should help you to grasp and understand the subject at least a bit better than from simply reading definitions and examples from the article. Concept map is made in such way that it should help you link , and arrange information that you've just seen and hopefully acquired in the article. It has one central point from which it branches into lesser branches similar the way they are linked in this article, but naturally presented in a visually more attractive way. These branches are described with so to say reasons of their existence, what they present and let you connect critical information. Hopefully you'll be able to understand and apply what you've just learned in this article in business and everyday life.
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Video tutorial of the subject:
This part of article links concept map and article in a visual + audio form , so with this final step this video tutorial of the subject should clear out all the eventual problems and uncertainties regarding the subject. To check out the video tutorial mentioned click on the link below.
Primary literature :
- Close, R.A. (1990). A Reference Grammar for Students of English. Harlow: Longman
- Side, R. Wellman, G.(2002). Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
- Soars, J., Soars, L.(1998). Headway Advanced Student’s Book. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Vince, M., Sunderland, P.(2003). Advanced Language Practice. Oxford: Macmillan Education.
Secondary literature :
Links last accessed 16.1.2012
- Leonard Leko G13
- Boris Levajac G13
- Ivan Juratovac G13